Below is a list of terms and definitions in alphabetical order. Click a letter to jump to that section:
|Airlines for America
|A4A is an airline trade organization that advocates on behalf of its members to shape policies and measures that promote safety, security, and a healthy U.S. airline industry.
|Advanced Biofuels Association
|ABFA is an industry trade organization representing entities pursuing the commercialization of renewable fuels.
|Airports Council International - North America
|ACI-NA is a trade organization that represents local, regional, and state governing bodies that own and operate commercial airports in the United States and Canada. ACI-NA is one of the five worldwide regions of Airports Council International (ACI).
|Airport Cooperative Research Program
|A research effort of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) that carries out applied research on problems shared by airport operating agencies. The TRB is an entity of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
|Association of Energy Engineers
|Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) is a nonprofit professional society of over 11,000 members in 78 countries. The mission of AEE is “to promote the scientific and educational interests of those engaged in the energy industry and to foster action for Sustainable Development.” AEE also commonly refers to FAA AEE.
|Air Force Research Laboratory
|An organization of the United States Air Force dedicated to the discovery, development, and integration of war fighting technologies for our air, space, and cyberspace forces. AFRL has been engaged in the evaluation and qualification of synthetic jet fuel production methodologies.
|Aerospace Industries Association
|The Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) is the trade association representing the nation's aerospace and defense manufacturers.
|Latin America & Caribbean Air Transport Association (Asociación Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Transporte Aéreo)
|ALTA is a private law entity nonprofit comprised of airlines in Latin America and the Caribbean, which aims to combine and coordinate the efforts of its members to facilitate the development of air transport in Latin America and strengthen the channels of collaboration and communication between those for mutual benefit of industry and its users.
|Typically, a fuel produced from sources other than petroleum
|The Energy Policy Act of 1992 defines alternative fuels as methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohol; mixtures containing 85 percent or more (but not less than 70 percent as determined by the Secretary of Energy by rule to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels. Includes compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels other than alcohols derived from biological materials, electricity, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines by rule is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security and environmental benefits.
|Alternative Jet Fuel
|This term is broader than SAF as it includes fuels sourced from petroleum alternatives that may not be considered sustainable, such as coal.
|Fats and Oils derived from animal processing, being used for conversion into fuels, including: tallow - from beef, sheep, goat processing white grease/lard - from pork processing fish oil, shellfish oil, chicken fat
|Association of Oil Pipelines
|A United States based nonprofit organization whose membership is comprised of owners and operators of liquid pipelines.
|American Petroleum Institute
|API is a national trade association that represents all aspects of the United States' oil and natural gas industry.
|Aqueous Phase Reforming
|A reforming reaction that occurs in the presence of liquid water; specifically a reforming reaction to generate hydrogen and alkanes from biomass-derived carbohydrates.
|Advance Research Projects Agency - Energy
|An entity within the Department of Energy that advances high-potential, high-impact energy technologies that are too early for private-sector investment. ARPA-E projects have the potential to radically improve U.S. economic security, national security, and environmental well-being. ARPA-E empowers America’s energy researchers with funding, technical assistance, and market readiness.
|FAA Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet Fuels & Environment
|A research partnership with cost-sharing among academia, industry, and government, focused on environmental aviation topics and alternative jet fuel.
|ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is a voluntary standards development organizations. ASTM International specifications are used for the certification of jet fuel.
|Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
|A widely utilized specification that defines the properties of aviation turbine fuel for civil use and describes fuels found satisfactory for the certification and operation of aircraft and engines. The specification can be used as a standard in describing the quality of aviation turbine fuels from the refinery to the aircraft.
|Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives
|This practice covers and provides a framework for the qualification and approval of new fuels and new fuel additives for use in commercial and military aviation gas turbine engines. The practice was developed as a guide (e.g. for those seeking ASTM D7566 adoption of a new synthetic jet fuel blending component) by the aviation gas-turbine engine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) with ASTM International member support.
|Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons
|This specification defines specific types of aviation turbine fuel that contain synthesized hydrocarbons for civil use in the operation and certification of aircraft and describes fuels found satisfactory for the operation of aircraft and engines.
|Air Transport Association of America
|Previous name of A4A
|Alcohol-to-Jet, Alcohol-to-Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene
|A synthetic jet fuel blending component produced from the conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbon chains (in the jet fuel range) through the use of thermo-chemical processes (dehydration, oligomerization, hydrogenation, and fractionation primarily)
|Bioenergy is a form of energy that comes from materials derived from recently living biological organisms (biomass), including plants, animals, and their byproducts.
|Renewable fuels derived from biological materials that can be regenerated. This distinguishes them from fossil fuels, which are considered non-renewable. Examples of biofuels are fermented alcohols, biodiesel, renewable diesel, RJF/SAF, and biogas. Biofuels compatible with jet-powered aviation are described in ASTM D7566. Renewable fuels can be produced from a wide range of non-petrochemical feedstocks, and via a wide range of conversion processes, including both biochemical and thermochemical processes.
|Biomass is a general term that describes any material (mass) that has been produced by the growth and resource use of living organisms. Therefore, any plant, animal, or bacterial material is biomass.
|Barrel of Oil Equivalent
|A term used to summarize the amount of energy that is equivalent to the amount of energy found in a barrel of crude oil. Also known as Crude Oil Equivalent (COE).
|BRDB, BRDB TAC, BRDI
|Biomass Research & Development Board; BRDB Technical Advisory Committee; Biomass Research & Development Initiative
|The Biomass Research and Development Board is an interagency collaborative effort among the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and other agencies involved in biomass research and development. The Board, which “coordinates research and development activities concerning bio-based fuels, products, and power across federal agencies,” is co-chaired by the USDA and the U.S. Department of Energy. The BRDB has a Technical Advisory Committee whose role it is to provide feedback to the chairs on the overall effectiveness of the program.
|Biomass to Liquid
|The process to produce liquid biofuels from biomass, or more specifically, referring to a process via which biomass is gasified and converted to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch methods.
|Csoot, C-soot, Carbon soot, black carbon
|Soot particles, typically airborne
|Unburned carbon molecules. See also UHC.
|Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative
|A coalition of airlines, aircraft and engine manufacturers, energy producers, researchers, international participants, and U.S. government agencies. Together these stakeholders are leading the development and deployment of alternative jet fuels for commercial aviation.
|Carbon Neutral Growth
|An industry, sector, or company continuing to expand its activities without incurring further increases in net greenhouse gas emission
|The process in which the rate of a chemical reaction is either increased or decreased by means of a chemical substance.
|A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any change.
|Coal/Biomass to Liquids
|The process to produce liquid biofuels from a combination of coal and biomass, or more specifically, a process via which coal and biomass are gasified and converted to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch methods
|Carbon Capture and Sequestration/Storage
|A process of capturing carbon dioxide emissions to prevent them from going into the atmosphere, and then storing them permanently. A commonly discussed strategy is to store captured CO2 by pumping it underground into geological formations. There are also discussion of biological capture and sequestration in trees, algae, etc.
|Carbon Capture and Use; Carbon Capture Storage and Use
|The process via which captured carbon is subsequently re-used and released into the atmosphere, representing at least one additional recycling of the carbon.
|The structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae, and the oomycetes. It is made up of cross-linked sugar molecules and is difficult to break down. A “cellulosic” biofuel production process would degrade cellulose sufficiently to make the sugars accessible for further processing.
|Refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization. In the realm of fuels, it often refers to whether a fuel can be “certified” as meeting a specification.
|A process using hot, compressed water and a catalyst to convert vegetable and animal fats from triglycerides into a bio-crude intermediate that can then be refined to produce a complete drop-in alternative jet fuel including aromatic compounds.
|CH4 (CH4, or CH4)
|Methane (CH4) is a naturally occurring gas emitted from a variety of natural and human-influenced sources. It is both a source of energy (natural gas) and a potent greenhouse gas. It is naturally emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices and by the decay of organic waste (e.g. in municipal solid waste landfills). As a greenhouse gas, methane remains in the atmosphere for approximately 9-15 years. Methane is over 20 times more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide (CO2) over a 100-year period. Human-influenced sources include landfills, natural gas and petroleum systems, agricultural activities, coal mining, stationary and mobile combustion, wastewater treatment, and certain industrial processes.
|Continuous Lower Energy Emissions and Noise
|An FAA Program to develop and foster industry acceptance of new technologies that reduce environmental impacts
|Compressed Natural Gas
|Natural gas (consisting primarily of methane) that is compressed until it is less than 1% of its volume at standard atmosphere. It can serve as an alternative to gasoline, and its use is often targeted at fleet vehicles (trucks and buses). It typically is drawn from domestically drilled natural gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production, although it can be comprised of biogas as well.
|Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air, and is toxic to humans when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. Carbon Monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds; it forms when there is not enough oxygen to complete the combustion of carbon (which produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and water). CO has a role in the formation of ground-level ozone, and so its production (e.g. from jet engines) is regulated.
|CO2 (CO2, CO2)
|A natural product of the combustion of carbon compounds. Enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste, trees and wood products, and also as a result of other chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture of cement). Carbon dioxide is also removed from the atmosphere (or “sequestered”) when it is absorbed by plants or the ocean as part of the biological carbon cycle.
|Crude Oil Equivalent
|A term used to summarize the amount of energy that is equivalent to the amount of energy found in a barrel of crude oil. Also known as Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE).
|A sector of the U.S. economy comprising scheduled and nonscheduled passenger and cargo airlines, aviation manufacturers, airport and aircraft service providers (including government services), and air cargo service providers.
|An association or a combination, as of businesses, financial institutions, or investors, for the purpose of engaging in a joint venture.
|The difference between crude oil and refined petroleum product prices, when expressed in similar units, is known as the crack spread. For example, if crude oil costs $60 per barrel and jet fuel costs $75 per barrel, the jet fuel crack spread is $15 per barrel.
|Cracking (of fuel)
|Term used in the oil refining industry, meaning to “crack” crude oil, which is to break down the long-chain hydrocarbons in the crude oil into shorter chains. Also used with regard to the breaking of long-chain fatty acid derivatives (usually C18-C22) or synthetic waxes (e.g., from Fischer-Tropsch) to the jet fuel range (C8-C14).
|A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in the liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface-separating facilities. The U.S. benchmark for crude oil prices is West Texas Intermediate (WTI), measured in Cushing, Oklahoma.
|Coal to Liquid
|The process to produce liquid biofuels from coal, or more specifically, referring to a process via which coal is gasified to form a syngas which is then converted to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch methods.
|Defense Advanced Research Program Agency
|The research and development office for the U.S. Department of Defense.
|Commercialization and commercial use of a new technology such as alternative fuels.
|Defense Logistics Agency Energy
|An agency within the Department of Defense responsible for providing the Department of Defense and other government agencies with comprehensive energy solutions in the most effective and efficient manner possible. DLA procures fuel for the Armed Services.
|Direct Land Use Change
|A change in the use or management of land by humans. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) distinguishes six broad land use categories: forestland, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements, and other land (e.g. bare soil, rock and ice), where the conversion from one land use category to another is called LUC.
|Department of Defense
|The U.S. Department of Defense is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military.
|Department of Energy
|The U.S. Department of Energy is the federal department charged with advancing the development of energy technologies and promoting related innovation in the United States.
|Department of Transportation
|The mission of the U.S. Department of Transportation is to develop and coordinate policies that will provide an efficient and economical national transportation system, with due regard for need, the environment, and the national defense.
|Defense Production Act
|U.S. Federal law enacted in 1950 giving the President authority to force private industry into giving priority to defense and homeland security contracts and allocate resources as needed. Title III of the Act enables the Federal government to engage in activities to “create assured, affordable, commercially viable production capabilities and capacities for items essential for national defense.” The Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production Project under this program is funding several first-of-a-kind drop-in alternative fuel biorefineries. This program is funded jointly by USDA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense.
|Drop-in Jet fuel blend
|A substitute for conventional jet fuel, that is completely interchangeable and compatible with conventional jet fuel when blended with conventional jet fuel. A drop-in fuel blend does not require adaptation of the aircraft/engine fuel system or the fuel distribution network, and can be used “as is” on currently flying turbine-powered aircraft.
|Federal Aviation Administration
|The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration is an entity within the Department of Transportation whose continuing mission is to provide the safest, most efficient aerospace system in the world.
|FAA’s Office of Environment and Energy
|This Office within the FAA recommends and coordinates national aviation policy relating to environmental and energy matters, including noise and emissions. The FAA uses such multi-letter terminology as a convenient organizational naming convention.
|Fatty Acid Methyl Ester
|Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) is a moniker commonly used in reference to biodiesel. This is traditional biodiesel, produced by processing raw vegetable oil or animal fats through a chemical process called transesterification. FAME is not a suitable “drop-in” fuel for jet aircraft as it contains oxygenates, and in fact, is considered to be a contaminant when found in jet fuel.
|Organic acids from which fats and oils are made. These can be used as feedstocks for HEFA fuels.
|The primary provider of services to general aviation aircraft and operators located at or adjacent to an airport. General aviation refers to all flights other than military flights: scheduled airline flights and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial.
|Raw material(s) required for an industrial process, and more specifically, a source of hydrogen and carbon (hydrocarbon) for the production of an alternative fuel. Feedstocks can come in various forms (solid, gas, liquid) and from various sources (e.g. oils, sugars and starches, cellulose, industrial waste streams).
|Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
|The federal agency with jurisdiction over, among other things, interstate natural gas pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certification
|Any of a group of chemical reactions induced by living or nonliving ferments that split complex organic compounds into relatively simple substances (e.g. the conversion of sugars or starches to ethanol and CO2)
|Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are synthetic, powerful greenhouse gases that are emitted from a variety of industrial processes. Fluorinated gases are sometimes used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (i.e., CFCs, HCFCs, and halons). These gases are typically emitted in smaller quantities, but because they are potent greenhouse gases, they are sometimes referred to as High Global Warming Potential gases (“High GWP gases”).
|Any naturally occurring organic fuel found in the Earth's crust (such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas) formed by fossilization of organic material deposited by decaying plant/animal matter
|Fermented Renewable Jet
|A biofuel created by a synthetic biology process in which metabolic processes involved in fermentation have been co-opted by genetically modifying organisms to produce hydrocarbons in place of ethanol
|Fuel Readiness Level
|A scale that provides an objective measure of how close a particular alternative fuel or feedstock is to successful deployment for jet fuel production.
|Fuel Supply Agreement
|A document that contains details on an agreement between a seller and buyer for a commitment to sell and to purchase fuel. The agreement will contain the name of buyer, the seller, term, product specification, volume, price, payment terms, delivery points, contacts, and any other terms and conditions related to the transaction.
Aviation Fuel Supply Model Agreement Version 5 (Effective January 2017)
Guidance for Selling Alternative Fuels to Airlines (June 2013)
|Feedstock Readiness Level
|The Feedstock Readiness Level (FSRL) Tool is a companion to the CAAFI® Readiness Level (FRL) Tool. The FSRL Tool provides a means of tracking development and availability of the raw materials (or feedstocks) required to make alternative jet fuels. Levels range from 1 (preliminary feedstock evaluation) to 9 (commercial deployment of the feedstock).
|Fischer-Tropsch is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. Named for German researchers Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch.
|The Fischer-Tropsch process (or Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis) is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms via the use of a reactor with cobalt or iron catalyst.
|FT-SPK, FT Fuel
|Synthesized Paraffinic Kerosene produced from the hydroprocessing of Fischer-Tropsch synthesized hydrocarbons
|Nomenclature for an approved process for the creation of jet fuel blending component using FT conversion of syngas. The specification for this fuel is included in ASTM D7566, Annex A1.
|Synthesized Paraffinic Kerosene with Aromatics produced from the hydroprocessing of Fischer-Tropsch synthesized hydrocarbons
|Nomenclature for a pending approval for the creation of jet fuel blending component (paraffins and aromatics) using FT conversion of syngas. The specification for this fuel will be included in ASTM D7566, Annex A4.
|Holding place where fuel resides
|Hazardous air pollutants
|Hydrotreated Depolymerized Cellulosic Jet
|Pyrolysis process to convert plant biomass into biocrude oil via thermochemical depolymerization, followed by upgrading to jet fuel
|Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids
|Product of converting vegetable and animal fats from triglycerides into hydrocarbons via hydrogenation to remove oxygen. Jet fuel production requires subsequent cracking of long hydrocarbons to jet fuel length.
|Synthesized Paraffinic Kerosene produced from Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids
|Nomenclature for an approved process for the creation of jet fuel blending component using hydroprocessing of plant and animal based fats, oils, and greases (mono-, di-, and triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid esters). The HEFA process converts the oils into hydrocarbons via hydrogenation to essentially remove all oxygen. Jet fuel production requires subsequent hydroprocessing of these hydrocarbons to jet fuel length. The specification for this fuel is included in ASTM D7566, Annex A2.
|Hydroprocessed Fermented Sugars to Synthesized Isoparaffins
|Nomenclature for an approved process for the creation of jet fuel blending component by using microbial conversion of sugar to hydrocarbons. The process entails the fermentation of sugars into a hydrocarbon molecule using modified yeasts. The existing approved process produces a C15 hydrocarbon molecule called farnesene, which after hydroprocessing to farnesane, can be used as a blendstock in jet fuel up to 10%.
|Hydrotreated Renewable Jet
|A moniker used to describe HEFA-SPK prior to the name being formalized by ASTM D7566.
|Substances containing only hydrogen and carbon. Fossil fuels are comprised of hydrocarbons, as are synthetic drop-in jet fuels.
|Any of several chemical engineering processes including hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and hydrotreating, especially as part of oil refining
|Process that removes sulfur and nitrogen in petroleum refineries to improve the quality of gasoline, jet fuels, and diesel fuel
|International Air Transport Association
|Industry group operating as a vehicle for inter-airline cooperation in promoting safe, reliable, secure, and economical air services for the benefit of the world's consumers
|International Civil Aviation Organization
|ICAO is a United Nations specialized agency that works with 191 member states and global aviation organizations to develop international Standards and Recommended Practices which States reference when developing their legally-enforceable national civil aviation regulations.
|International Energy Agency
|Intergovernmental organization which acts as energy policy advisor to 28 member countries in their effort to ensure reliable, affordable, and clean energy for their citizens. Founded during the oil crisis of 1973-74, the IEA's initial role was to co-ordinate measures in times of oil supply emergencies. As energy markets have changed, so has the IEA. Its mandate has broadened to incorporate the “Three Es” of balanced energy policy making: energy security, economic development, and environmental protection.
|Indirect Land Use Change
|Land Use Change that occurs as the result of a change in demand for a product that causes a change in agricultural production on land not being used for the production of that product. These changes are often driven by market mediated response or policies (e.g., RED or RFS).
|Induced Land Use Change
|The sum of direct (dLUC) and indirect (iLUC) land use change. Most land use change analysis is conducted with computable general equilibrium (CGE) models or large scale agricultural sector models, and direct and indirect land use changes are not distinguishable in those models. The ILUC occurs as a result of a shock (often policy related) applied to the model, which “induces” market mediated responses.
|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|IPCC is a body established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences.
|Land Use Change
|A change in the use or management of land by humans. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) distinguishes six broad land use categories: forestland, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements, and other land (e.g. bare soil, rock and ice), where the conversion from one land use category to another is called LUC.
|Life Cycle Analysis
|Life cycle analyses (LCA) is a methodology that evaluates the entire spectrum of impact of a product over its whole life cycle. In the case of biofuels, LCA generally refers to a calculation of CO2 or GHG emissions from initiation of feedstock production to combustion of the fuel in a vehicle.
|Limited Liability Company
|Limited Liability Company (LLC) is a business structure allowed by state statute. LLCs are popular because, similar to a corporation, owners have limited personal liability for the debts and actions of the LLC. Other features of LLCs are more like a partnership, providing management flexibility and the benefit of pass-through taxation. Owners of an LLC are called members. Since most states do not restrict ownership, members may include individuals, corporations, other LLCs, and foreign entities. There is no maximum number of members. Most states also permit “single member” LLCs, those having only one owner. A few types of businesses generally cannot be LLCs, such as banks and insurance companies. Check your state's requirements and the federal tax regulations for further information. There are special rules for foreign LLCs.
|Landing and Take-Off emissions
|All aircraft activities that take place at altitudes under 914 meters (3.000 feet), including taxi-in and -out, take-off, climb-out, and approach-landing
|N2O (N2O, N2O)
|Chemical emitted from natural biosphere activity, certain agricultural (natural and human influenced), and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of fossil fuels (primarily in internal combustion engines, and not turbine engines). N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and Stratospheric Ozone depletion agent. It is used as an oxidizer in rocket motors, and as an anesthetic and analgesic. See also NOx.
|National Aeronautics Space Administration
|The National Aeronautics Space Administration's (NASA) mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research.
|National Air Transportation Association
|The National Air Transportation Association (NATA) is the leading organization representing aviation service businesses such as fixed base operators, charter providers, aircraft management companies including those supporting fractional shareholders, maintenance and repair organizations, flight training, and airline service companies. Founded in 1940, NATA aggressively promotes safety and the success of aviation service businesses through its advocacy efforts before government, the media, and the public as well as by providing valuable programs and forums to further its members' prosperity.
|Non-Esterified Renewable Diesel
|Technical moniker associated with Renewable Diesel which is produced through hydrotreating, similar to HEFA-SPK. This nomenclature differentiates this type of diesel from the product commonly described as biodiesel (produced via esterification, FAME).
|NOX, NOx, NO, NO2 (NO2, NO2)
|Oxides of Nitrogen, or Nitrogen Oxides
|Nitrogen oxides produced by the reaction of naturally occurring nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion. NOx gases react to form smog, acid rain, and ozone. The production of NOx from gas turbine engines for aviation is regulated.
|The element sulfur, often found in petrochemical feedstocks. When combusted, any sulfur present in the fuel oxidizes to form oxides of sulfur (often referred to as SOx), which are a major air pollutant (contributing to acid rain and atmospheric particulates). This factor is the driving force behind efforts to introduce ultra-low sulfur fuels. Sulfur does have the positive effect of being a natural lubricant in jet engine fuel system components, so its complete removal will drive the need for incorporating lubricity additives for the fuel.
|Sustainable Aviation Fuel or Sustainable Alternative Fuel
|Terminology preferred by international and EU stakeholders to describe conventional jet fuel blended with jet fuel derived from sustainable alternatives to petroleum.
|Sustainable Aviation Fuel
|Aviation fuels produced sustainably from renewable resources (in whole or in part). See also Biofuel. This was CAAFI’s preferred terminology before agreeing to use the term SAF as preferred by international stakeholders in support of industry solidarity.
|Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene created from Synthesized Iso-Paraffins
|Nomenclature for an approved process for the creation of jet fuel blending component using synthesized iso-paraffins from the specialized fermentation of sugars. The specification for this fuel is included in ASTM D7566, Annex A3.
|A very generic term for jet fuel produced from a non-petroleum sources. See also Alternative Fuels.
|Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics
|A more descriptive but still generic term for a jet fuel blending component that contains aromatic content
|SO2, (SO2, SO2) or SOx
|Sulfur dioxide, or Oxides of Sulfur generically
|See definition of Sulfur.
|Seminars on Alternatives to Petroleum-Jet
|CAAFI's R&D Team webinar series focused on the co-processing of biofuels within existing refinery systems with an emphasis on the applicability of this approach to produce aviation biofuels.
|Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosenes
|Drop-in alternative jet fuel blending component consisting of paraffins derived from non-petroleum sources (often biofuels). It is not a complete replacement for jet fuel as is does not contain cyclo-paraffins or aromatics. See Jet Fuel.
|STG+ gas-to-liquids technology is a thermochemical catalytic process to convert syngas derived from natural gas, biomass, or municipal solid waste into methanol, which is dehydrated into dimethyl ether and then converted via catalysis, transalkylation ,and hydrogenation into drop-in transportation fuels, such as gasoline, jet fuel, and aromatic chemicals.
|An asset that is worth less on the market than it is on a balance sheet due to the fact that it has become obsolete in advance of complete depreciation
|Entity that provides goods or services to a company
|A system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer
|The provision of energy such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
|Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuel and Energy in Aviation
|European Commission effort that funded an alternative-fuel-for-aviation initiative
|Syngas is the abbreviation for Synthesis gas. This is a gas mixture that is comprised of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. The syngas is produced due to the gasification of a carbon-containing fuel to a gaseous product that has some heating value.
|Synthetic biology refers to both the design and fabrication of biological components and systems that do not already exist in the natural world and the re-design and fabrication of existing biological systems. Currently being used by some biofuels companies to convert raw materials into hydrocarbons using biological processes.
|Liquid fuel obtained from non-petroleum feedstocks (coal, natural gas, or biomass)
|Synthetic Jet Fuel
|A jet fuel derived from non-petroleum sources, as defined by ASTM 7566
|UCO (UVO, RVO, WVO, tallow)
|Used cooking oil (UCO), used vegetable oil (UVO), recycled vegetable oil (RVO), waste vegetable oil (WVO), or yellow grease
|Oil (typically plant oils, but not always) from cooking processes (homes, restaurants, industrial applications) that is discarded/recycled after reaching its useful life. It has subsequent use for animal feed and the manufacture of soap, make-up, clothes, rubber, and detergents. It is being used as a feedstock for biofuel production. Differs from Brown Grease which is typically recovered from grease traps in sewage treatment facilities, and often contains significant contaminants that make its re-use difficult.
|Hydrocarbons that are not completely converted to CO2 during the combustion process due to some inefficiency, subsequently considered to be contaminates or particulates in the engine exhaust
|Ultra Low Sulfur (e.g., Ultra low sulfur diesel)
|For diesel, defined as having a maximum 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur content
|The use of fuel onboard an aircraft
|Refers to the concept of loading the fuel onto an aircraft for usage on the next flight. Can be specific in its meaning of how much fuel is loaded onto the aircraft (mass or volume).
|United States Air Force
|The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
|United States Department of Agriculture
|The U.S. Department of Agriculture is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to agriculture—providing leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management.